How Much Online Traffic Comes from Mobile Devices?

How Much Online Traffic Comes from Mobile Devices

We know people spend a lot of time on their smartphones, but how much online traffic actually comes from mobile devices?

Questions like this are good to answer, because they help us:

1. Understand how people behave and interact with the world.

2. Guide our decision making as marketers, representatives, owners, and business people in general.

The better we understand customer behavior, the better decisions we can make. And since customers spend so much time online, it’s important to know how they get there (and find our companies).

Below I’ll give you a brief history of mobile online traffic, explain why it matters, and share some advice on what you can do with this information.

What counts as a mobile device?

Devices are normally divided into two categories: desktop and mobile.

Desktop refers to laptops and desktop computers. Mobile normally refers to smartphones and tablets (like iPads), but sometimes includes other portable devices (like handheld gaming consoles and e-readers).

Smart Insights Device Usage by Time of Day
PC: Smart Insights

So when you see “desktop” below, you can think of desktop computers and laptops. When you see “mobile,” you can think of smartphones and tablets.

Other times, you’ll see smartphones or tablets referenced specifically.

Here’s a brief history of mobile devices and the internet.


There’s some debate about this, but mobile broadband became available in 1991 as part of the second generation (2G) of mobile phone technology. The first commercial smartphone was shipped 5 years later in 1996, by Nokia.

Nokia Communicator First Commercial Smartphone

In 2003, the PalmOne Treo became popular for a minute before BlackBerry took over. Then, in 2007, the iPhone changed the game.

Today – just a decade later – it’s estimated that 82% of American adults own a smartphone. In fact, so many people have smartphones today that smartphone sales have effectively leveled off.


There’s also some debate around the first tablets. Technically, the first tablet was created in 1956, but the first tablet as we know them today came from a Microsoft/Lenovo partnership in 2000.

Bill Gates with Microsoft Table in 2000 Reuters
PC: Reuters

Plenty of people used these, but tablets didn’t become popular until Apple launched the iPad in 2010. Today, tablets make up a minority of mobile device usage.

Online engagement

These devices have taken us all by storm, and in 2014, mobile internet traffic overtook desktop internet traffic for the first time (more details below).

In 2015, Google unleashed “Mobilegeddon,” which was an update to their search algorithms specifically for mobile users.

Particularly since Mobilegeddon, mobile internet usage has become ubiquitous. The average smartphone user now spends over 4 hours a day on their mobile phone, surfing the web, shopping, and more.

The average smartphone user now spends over 4 hours a day on their mobile phone.

Through all of this, the average American consumer has become mobile-first. In other words, most people will turn to their smartphones before turning to their computers, or even their friends.

Other behaviors have changed, too. Today, we know that:

So how much online traffic comes from mobile devices today?

Let’s look at a few recent studies.

In June 2014, comScore reported that mobile devices accounted for about 60% of online traffic in the U.S. Other studies echoed a similar figure shortly after.

Fast forward to 2016, and we find several reports of mobile devices accounting for anywhere from 55% to 65% of online traffic!

comScore Mobile Share of Total Digital Minutes
PC: comScore (Note: includes online and offline digital media)

Each study found a unique result, but they all had one thing in common: Mobile devices continued to account for more online traffic year-over-year.

At the time of this writing (towards the end of 2017), there’s been another update to the research.

What is it today?

In October, Zenith released their latest Mobile Advertising Forecasts report, showing that mobile devices now account for 70% of internet usage worldwide, and 77% of internet usage in the U.S.!

Zenith Mobile Share Internet Use Digital Ad Spend
PC: MarketingCharts

In other words, 7 out of 10 minutes spent online comes from smartphones and tablets (mostly smartphones) – closer to 8 out of 10 minutes if you live in the U.S.!

7 out of 10 minutes spent online comes from smartphones and tablets – closer to 8 out of 10 minutes if you live in the U.S.

If you work in any kind of a customer-based business this research is crucial for you to understand (and act on). Here’s why.

So, what does this mean?

Basically, this means your average adult chooses to use their phone to find:

  • Answers to their questions
  • Solutions to their problems
  • Products they want
  • And entertainment

It means most Americans (at least those 18-55 y.o.) have adapted to a mobile-first way of getting information and accomplishing tasks. So how can you apply this to your business?

What should a business do with this information?

You need to make mobile the focal point of any online strategy. It can be a tough shift to make, so here are several things you can do to help.

Mobile-first website

It’s been common for years to craft a mobile-responsive website, but it’s not enough to just work on mobile devices anymore. Your company needs to thrive on mobile.

The next time you update your website (which might be something you should do now), design your website around the mobile experience.

Should trends keep up at all like they are (and research suggests they will), you’ll gain more value in SEO, user experience, and sales by focusing on mobile viewers first.

AMP pages

Accelerated Mobile Pages are essentially a stripped down version of HTML, uniquely created to make your pages load super fast.

It was designed for publishers, but can be used by anyone with a blog.

The average mobile website takes 19 seconds to load (on 3G speeds), even though 53% of web pages that take longer than 3 seconds to load are abandoned.

Do use see the problem?

If most people find you through mobile devices, but leave before your site even loads, you’re going to miss out on most of your business opportunities.

Messaging for customer communications

9 out 10 people want to message a business. Do you make that easy for them?

Consumers can now text you through your Google My Business Listing, Google (Adwords) ads, Instagram profile, and – if you play your cards right – through your own website.

Plus, there’s always Facebook Messenger.

Canva Edited Mobile Search Listing

The only thing is you need a way to handle these conversations. See the links in the paragraph above, or click the phone number to text us (if you’re on mobile). (423) 218-0111

Tailored emails

The majority of emails today are opened on mobile devices. What people expect in mobile emails is also different than what they expect (or want) from desktop emails.

For more details on how to tailor your emails for mobile devices, view our guide: How Does Mobile Email Engagement Compare to Desktop Rates?

Return Path Where Are People Opening Emails

Bring it together.

As technology changes, so does culture. Today that means Americans spend a lot of time “connected,” and most of this time is shared by mobile devices.

More than 3/4 of total time spent on the internet is accounted for by mobile devices. You could say we’re all addicted, but the best thing to do for your business is follow suit.

Business 101 says go where your customers are. Your customers are on their smart phones and tablets, looking for things to read and buy and generally engage with.

Where are you?

Related: How Much Time Do People Spend on Their Mobile Phones in 2017?

How Does Mobile Email Engagement Compare to Desktop Rates?

How Does Mobile Email Engagement Compare to Desktop Rates

Email engagement rates might be the most scrutinized piece of data in marketing. Case studies abound on the “best” terms to use in subject lines and the “ideal” time to send messages.

Now we’re adding another layer of understanding to email engagement, thanks to a recent study by email service provider Return Path that compared mobile and desktop rates.

What was measured?

The main question Return Path wanted to answer was: Where are people reading emails?

To get an answer, they analyzed over 27 billion client emails between May 2016 and April 2017. They looked at opens by environment*, time spent reading by environment, and a whole lot more. For the full study, click here.

*Environment refers to where the email was viewed. There were 3 options:

  • Mobile devices (smartphone and tablet apps)
  • Webmail clients (e.g.Gmail, Yahoo, etc. accessed through a browser)
  • Desktop clients (desktop software downloads; e.g. Outlook, Apple Mail, etc.)

What did they find?

Essentially, most emails are opened on mobile devices, and people spend more time reading mobile emails than desktop emails. But that’s not the whole picture.

Email opens by environment

On average, 55% of email opens came from mobile devices, while 28% of opens came from webmail clients, and only 16% came from desktop clients.

What’s interesting is not mobile’s dominance in email engagement (that’s expected), but how much open rates varied over the year-long study.

Return Path Where Are People Opening Emails

Mobile accounted for 58% of total opens at its highest point in July 2016, but only 52% at its lowest point in February 2017.

Webmail only accounted for 25% of total opens at its lowest point in May 2016, but made up 32% of total opens at its highest point in April 2017.

Desktop clients accounted for 19% of total opens at its highest point in May 2016, but only made up 16% of total opens at its lowest point in April 2017.

Mobile devices are believed to be consuming more of everything we do on a daily basis, but mobile’s share of email open rates actually decreased over the year, while webmail’s share of open rates increased.

Mobile is dominant, but its growth seems to have slowed. This is echoed in our study on how much time people spend on their mobile phones in 2017.

Email engagement by environment

People spend more time reading emails on mobile devices than on other platforms. Webmail engagement holds pretty close to mobile, while desktop engagement drops significantly.

Take a look at Marketing Chart’s graph of this (below).

ReturnPath Email Engagement by Device Jul2017

64% of mobile emails opened were read (meaning users spent 7 seconds or more viewing the email), while 22% of emails opened were skimmed (users spent 2-7 seconds on it), and 15% of emails opened were abandoned (users spent less than 2 seconds viewing the email).

61% of webmail emails opened were read, 21% were skimmed, and 18% were abandoned. Of desktop emails opened, only 45% were read, while 24% were skimmed and 30% were abandoned.

Between number of opens and time spent, mobile brings the best email engagement rates, though webmail isn’t far behind.

Desktop client emails perform poorly by comparison, but almost half (45%) of their opens still get 7 seconds or more of read time.

How should we interpret this data?

Interpretation is where we move from objective numbers to subjective thought, so we have to make sure we update our views with each new piece of information.

For instance, based on these numbers, it would be easy to say all emails should be tailored explicitly for mobile, because those get the most engagement. But there are other factors to consider, too.

When do people open emails?

Many studies show the best time to send emails is 10am on Tuesday. There’s a lot of speculation as to why this is the case. Most people chalk it up to being the time after people have settled in for the day, and are looking for something to do.

The problem is, other studies show “best” times ranging from Monday evening all the way to Sunday morning!

There are too many variables to say hands down which time is best for which consumers on which devices in which market. Even that sentence is complicated!

For more on when people open emails, see our guide: How many emails do people get every day?


How much time do people spend on mobile devices?

The average American spends over 4 hours a day on their phone, and that figure increases among younger audiences. But, the average worker spends the majority of their 7-10 hour workday in front of a computer.

Between the 2 devices, people check their email an average of 74 times a day! People are spending anywhere from 25 minutes to 2 hours a day actively involved in their inbox.

Unfortunately, this doesn’t mean they read your emails. Even though people check their inboxes constantly, less than 30% of emails are ever opened.

What are people looking for?

People are generally looking for things that bring value, but what brings value changes throughout the day.

During mornings and evenings, for instance, people are often looking for updates, news, and interesting stories. This is also when people are most likely to be on their phones.

Related: 15 Reasons Why I Didn’t Reply to Your Email (& How to Improve)

Think about someone sitting on their couch, drinking their morning coffee, and scrolling through updates on their phone. If you were in that situation, what would you be looking for? 

During business hours, what people find value in often changes. For instance, they might be looking for tips and new offers to help them do their jobs better.

Because they’re already sitting in front of a computer, they’re more likely to view these kinds of messages in a webmail or desktop client.

How does age affect this?

We don’t know a lot about which demographics or companies use webmail and desktop clients. But we do know that 92% of adults under 30 own a smartphone. 88% of adults 30-49 own a smartphone, 74% of adults 50-64 do, and only 42% of adults over 65 own smartphones.

Pew Research Center Who Owns Smartphones
PC: Pew Research Center

The drop-off rate for smartphone ownership is relatively steady. This means there are more opportunities for younger demographics to engage with mobile email simply because more of them have mobile devices.

So what does all of this mean?

It means that the kind of emails you should send, and at which times, depends entirely on your brand and the audience you’re trying to reach.

Are you targeting younger or older demographics? Are you a B2B company or a B2C? What kind of information or offers are you sending?

Your #1 priority should be adding value, because value is what drives engagement. But how valuable something is, and in which environment it’s valuable, changes throughout the day.

Mobile emails tend to bring more value outside of business hours while webmail and desktop client emails tend to bring more value during business hours.

Accordingly, emails that aren’t work related tend to bring more value outside of business hours, and ought to get more engagement on mobile devices.

Emails that are work related tend to bring more value during business hours, and ought to get more engagement in webmail and desktop client environments.

Smart Insights Device Usage by Time of Day
PC: Smart Insights

The best times and the best environment all depend on what you’re sending and to whom. The only way to know for sure what’s best for your brand is to test, and answer questions like:

Do emails tailored for mobile devices perform better in the evening?

Do people engage with this content more around lunch time? Etc.

A Final Note

While this research is new, the implications are not. Mobile has dominated email engagement for years, although its dominance isn’t as overwhelming as normally depicted.

Just remember to always do 2 things: Focus on adding value, and tailor your messages for where your audience is most likely to view them.

If you follow these 2 rules, you’ll do great!

Related: How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day?

How Many People Still Use a Landline Phone in 2017? New Research Finds

How Many People Still Use a Landline Phone

It feels like everyone has migrated to using their smartphone for everything. So, how many people still use a landline phone in 2017?

The short answer is: more than you’d think. Or, at least, it turns out more people still use a landline phone than we would have guessed.

We’d assume that more and more people are choosing to save money by tossing their landline phones, and only using their cell phones.

Related: How Much Time Do People Spend on Their Mobile Phones in 2017?

And that is happening to an extent, but here’s what new research shows us is really happening.

How many people still use a landline phone in 2017?

50.8% of American households are “wireless only homes.”

According to this month’s report by the U.S. Center for Disease Control National Health Information Survey (NHIS), 45.9% of American households still use a landline phone as of December 2016.

This figure is down 2.6% since December 2015, and has been dropping by an average of 3.7% year-over-year since 2010.

NHIS National Household Landline Phone Research
PC: MarketingCharts

Most households – 50.8% – now only use cell phones, though the numbers do vary somewhat by study.

GfK MRI reported in January that 52% of American households are cell-only in their Survey of the American Consumer. Either way, it’s clear that more and more Americans are abandoning landline phones.

Who’s still using landline phones in 2017?

Income and location have as much to do with landline phone ownership as age.

As you might imagine, older demographics are more likely to still use a landline phone.

A particularly telling finding by the NHIS is 50.5% of all adults surveyed (male and female, husbands and wives, etc.) live in “wireless only homes.” Yet 60.7% of children (those under 18 years old) live in “wireless only homes.”

Another interesting finding is that 61.7% of adults 18-24 live in wireless only homes, while 72.7% of adults 25-29 and 71.0% of adults 30-34 live in wireless only homes.

This could be explained by more college-aged adults living with their parents, though the NHIS report does not confirm this.

Related: Mobile Mary: A Complete Guide for Marketing to Millennials

Age is certainly a contributing factor in landline phone ownership, but income and geographic location seem to play an equal role.

According to the NHIS:

“Adults living in poverty (66.3%) and near poverty (59.0% were more likely than higher income adults (48.5%) to be living in households with only wireless telephones [cell phones].”

This lines up with research by Pew Research Center, which shows that lower income families are more likely to rely on their smartphones as their only source of internet and telecommunications.

These groups are less likely to purchase bundled services, such as internet, satellite TV, and phone.

Pew Research Center Smartphone Dependent Chart by Income
PC: Pew Research Center

And according to GfK’s report, only 39% of households in Northeast U.S. are wireless only, while 53% of households in the Midwest and 57% of households in the South are wireless only.

GfK makes a similar connection as Pew. They say households in the Northeast have higher rates of bundled services, and so are more likely to still use landline phones.

What about businesses?

It’s difficult to find definitive numbers on business landline use.

We know it’s common for established small businesses to stick with their existing landline services. The audio quality is better, they can bundle the service, and they’ve already paid for installation (often the most expensive part of landline services).

We also know it’s common for new(er) businesses to choose voice over internet protocol (VOIP) services instead of landlines. These are more cost-efficient and easier to manage.

Related: 8 Reasons Why Texting is Crucial to Business Communication

And still, it’s common for businesses to switch from landline to VOIP services.

All of these cases are common, but, unfortunately, we have no recent numbers on American usage. We do know, worldwide, VOIP services are expected to hit 1 billion users by the end of this year, creating a global market value of approximately $98.8 billion.

What should you do with this information?

What good is research if you can’t apply it to anything?

These numbers should help inform your business decisions and shape your view of our technology landscape. People today prefer mobility and saving money, so they choose less expensive services that can be used anywhere.

Please Hang Up and Text Me

In general, our culture is changing. Home landlines are called by fundraisers more than by friends and families. And so many people work in multiple spaces that a landline phone can be impractical.

Yet a lot of people still use a landline phone in 2017! Over 45% of American households have a landline phone, even though that number is trending down.

This signals a shift in our communications, though perhaps not as large of one as some major media players would have you believe. We’re changing, but we haven’t entirely migrated yet.

Related: 10 Reasons Why Millennials Aren’t Answering Your Phone Calls

How Much Time Do People Spend on Their Mobile Phones in 2017?

How Much Time Do People Spend on Their Mobile Phones in 2017

We’d all agree that people are on their phones “all the time.” But what does that look like in minutes and hours? How much time do people spend on their mobile phones in 2017?

Thankfully, there’s been a lot of research done on this recently. We’ll share that research below, and give you a breakdown on what it means for our day-to-day lives.

So, how much time do people spend on their mobile phones in 2017? Let’s dig in!

Where’d we get all this information?

We’ll link to everyone as we reference their work, but we included research from industry titans like:

  • comScore
  • Nielsen
  • SmartInsights
  • eMarketer
  • MediaKix
  • Pew Research Center
  • and more

Our goal with this report was not to prove a point, but to see what people are actually doing, and then to understand its practical application. We hope you enjoy it!

How much time do people spend on their mobile phones in 2017?

The simple answer is “over 4 hours a day.

According to comScore’s 2017 Cross Platform Future in Focus report, the average American adult (18+) spends 2 hours, 51 minutes on their smartphone every day.

That’s about 86 hours a month! This might be a record, but growth has certainly flattened out over the last year-and-a-half.

Related: How Many Texts Do People Send Every Day?

We’re spending more time involved in digital media overall, but less of that time on desktop and laptop computers. Mobile now accounts for about 65% of total digital media consumption.

As you might imagine, college-age adults (18-24) spend significantly more time on mobile phones than older demographics.

Time Spent on Mobile comScore
PC: comScore

eMarketer also released a study in 2016 that gives a significantly different answer. Their mobile research report shows total time spent by mobile users as 4 hours, 5 minutes per day.

Their study does also include tablet users, and only includes active mobile device users, both of which could account for the more-than-hour per day difference.

The study leaves room for potential overlap between users who might multi-task between a smartphone and tablet, too. Even though tablet usage accounts for roughly 15% of total mobile time, tablet users could still skew the numbers.

Average Mobile Internet Usage eMarketer
PC: eMarketer

Another study, conducted by Flurry, shows U.S. consumers actually spend over 5 hours a day on mobile devices! About 86% of that time was taken up by smartphones, meaning we spend about 4 hours, 15 minutes on our mobile phones every day.

Flurry’s study aligns more closely with eMarketer’s study, leaving comScore’s research out on the edge.

Flurry and eMarketer’s reports also coincide more closely with past research, which has shown we spend about 4 hours, 40 minutes on our mobile phones every day.

It’s difficult to pin down an exact figure for how much time people spend on their mobile phones in 2017, but the simple answer is “over 4 hours a day.”


Flurry US Daily Mobile Time Spent
PC: Flurry

What are we doing on our phones?


We use our mobile phones for entertainment, to connect with friends and colleagues, to stay informed, to shop, and for just about everything else!

At least 81% of American adults now own a smartphone, and these devices have become an integral part of both our work and personal lives.

Here’s what that looks like in hours and minutes.

Social Media

According to MediaKix, we spend an average of 1 hour, 56 minutes on the top 5 social media platforms alone. The top 5 being (by usage):

  1. YouTube
  2. Facebook
  3. Snapchat
  4. Instagram
  5. Twitter

And according to comScore’s 2017 Future in Focus report, 66% of that time takes place on smartphones. (Only 21% of social media time takes place on a desktop.)

Though this doesn’t include sites like Pinterest, LinkedIn, and other heavy hitters, it means we spend about 1 hour, 16 minutes a day engaging with the top 5 social media platforms on our phones.

MediaKix How Much Time People Spend on Social Media
PC: MediaKix

Actual Communication

It’s amazing how the purpose of mobile phones has changed through the years. They started as another way to communicate, and now they’re tools to experience the whole world from your fingers!

As social media, entertainment, search, and shopping take up larger portions of our time, how much time are we spending on actual communication?

SMS Mobile Smartphone Timeline

Unfortunately, what research is available (and accessible) is a bit dated, and no study agrees with the next!

Related: How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day?

For instance, one study by Informate (Jan. 2015) reports that the average American smartphone user goes through 32 texts and 6 phone calls per day.

This takes up a total of 26 minutes and 21 minutes, respectively. If only other studies shared the same results!

Informate Key Communication Activities
PC: Informate

A study by Nielsen shows we spend an average of 5.3% of our time emailing, and 13.4% of our time texting.

Based on our total mobile time of 4+ hours a day, Nielsen shows we spend about 13 minutes and 35 minutes per day on emailing and texting.

Next, comScore’s 2017 Future in Focus report shows we spend 3% (7 min.) of our time emailing, and 2% (5 min.) on instant messengers, which are very different figures from the first two reports!

However, comScore’s study only includes app usage, so standard SMS and email accessed through a browser are not included.

Related: What Does It Mean to Be Mobile Dependent?

eMarketer’s Mobile Usage report (pulled Nov. 2015) offers a much simpler breakdown in time, though it’s even more different than the first two!

According to eMarketer, 22% of mobile phone time is taken up by texting, 22% by phone calls, and 10% by email.

This would mean we spend, on average, about 55 minutes a day texting, 55 minutes a day on phone calls, and 25 minutes a day on mobile email.

Maybe we do actually use our phones for communication!

eMarketer Smartphone Activity Breakdown
PC: eMarketer

eMarketer’s report is most consistent with past research. Behaviors can and do change, but there might be a better reason for all these differences.

Today’s mobile landscape is dominated by multipurpose apps. You might use WhatsApp – or any number of similar options – to text or to call. You might use Snapchat to message, send pictures, and scroll through a feed.

A lot of our communication today takes place within “social media apps.” And because so many of these apps have so many functions, it’s hard to say how much time we spend on any one thing, like texting.


Roughly 90% of our mobile time is spent using apps.

Today’s digital landscape is very much app-focused. In fact, according to comScore’s Mobile Hierarchy Report (Jan. 2017), apps make up 87% of total mobile minutes.

Although, Flurry Analytics reported in December 2016, that apps take up 92% of total mobile time, while browsers account for the other 8%. 

It might be difficult to nail down an exact figure, but roughly 90% of our mobile time is spent using apps.

comScore App Share Digital Mobile Minutes
PC: comScore

According to comScore, American adult smartphone users spend an average of 73.8 hours a month on apps, which comes to a little under 2 hours, 30 minutes a day.

However, if we spend over 4 hours a day on our phones (like what we came to above), and app usage takes up 90% of that, then we actually spend about 3 hours, 40 minutes a day on apps.

Related: Where Does Mobile Fit in the Customer Buying Journey?

As you might imagine, younger adults spend more time on apps than older adults. That figure decreases steadily for older demographics, ending with those 65+ y.o., who spend 42.1 hours a month on apps, or about 1 hour, 25 minutes a day.

comScore App Usage by Age
PC: comScore

What might be most surprising is how much time seniors are spending on apps! Younger adults are “digital natives,” who grew up with this technology, but that certainly hasn’t stopped it from spreading.

What does this mean for you and me?

Things have changed, they will continue to change, and it’s in everyone’s best interest to adapt accordingly.

Mobile phones have solidified themselves in everyday American culture. They’ve also changed our daily behaviors.

Since Apple sparked a smartphone revolution in 2007, mobile devices have gone from cool and trendy to staples of how we interact with the world. And our behaviors have mostly moved from compulsion to practical application.

The #1 alarm clock is a phone. Most people check email and social media on their phones, and we all use them to communicate with friends, family, and colleagues.

The amount of time people spend on their mobile phones is less representative of addictive behavior today, and more representative of a massive cultural shift.

One interpretation of this data is that our lives are merely more technologically integrated. And, as with any change, this brings its own set of challenges.

How will we handle them? Only time will tell!

What does this mean for businesses?

The time people spend on their mobile phones means about the same for businesses as it does for everyone else. Things have changed, they will continue to change, and it’s in everyone’s best interest to adapt accordingly.

More people prefer social media and mobile messaging over calls and emails. It’s the duty of your business to communicate through social media and mobile messaging as well, because you need to meet consumers where they already spend their time.

Related: 7 Foundational Small Business Marketing Tips to Drive Exponential Growth

People spend more time searching for answers via mobile phones than on desktops. It’s the duty of your business to provide answers to these searches, and to tailor your website so that it provides a fast, enjoyable experience for mobile users.

Times have changed, and the businesses who change with it are the ones who will succeed.

A Final Word

How much time do people spend on their mobile phones in 2017? Quite a bit.

Over 4 hours a day means we spend over 1/6 of our days on our phones! But it doesn’t mean we’re bad people.

Mobile phones have become very practical, highly functional devices, and our usage reflects their application.

People have been adapting to advancements in mobile technology en masse, and businesses who follow suit will be able to thrive in this mobile-first era. 

At least until the next big thing comes around.

Related: 73 Texting Statistics That Answer All Your Questions

How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day?


Love it or hate it, email is one of the most pervasive communications tool around. In fact, the average worker checks their email 74 times a day! (Tweet this!) Just how many emails do people get every day?

How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day?

In 2015, 205.6 billion emails were being sent and received every day. (We don’t have 2016’s solid numbers yet.) That comes to just under 6.2 trillion emails sent worldwide in a 30-day period, and equals roughly 74-75 trillion emails sent last year around the globe.

How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day

Worldwide, there are roughly 2.6 billion email users. Together, they own more than 4.3 billion email accounts – a ratio of 1.7 email accounts per user.

Related: How Many Texts Do People Send Every Day?

These users receive an average of 88 emails per day, but they only send 34 emails per day. That means people are getting more than 2.5X more emails than they’re sending out! (Tweet this!)

How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day 1

What Do Open Rates Look Like?

Email open rates are currently averaging around 30%, while click-through rates average 3.2% across industries. This means that about 1 in 11 opened emails gets a click-through.

Mobile is the preferred device for checking email, accounting for 54% to 70% of total email opens. (Tweet this!) In other words, unless your brand is atypical or targets an older demographic, you need to be focusing on mobile.

Spam messages (newsletters, marketing, promotions, etc.) account for half of all sent emails (49.7%).

When & How Do People Best Engage With Emails?

So much of the best time to send emails depends on your industry, and on what kind of emails you’re sending. For instance, Saturday and Sunday are great for publishing and media companies.

50%+ of Americans admit to checking their phones in bed, and 79% of Americans check their phones within 15 minutes of waking up. So people wake up, scroll through notifications, and start reading whatever content is interesting.

Related: 15 Reasons Why I Didn’t Reply to Your Email (& How to Improve)

However, other studies have shown that Tuesdays are best for open rates, and that Thursdays are best for click-throughs. (These are typically business-related emails.) Fridays seem perpetually awful.

The best open rates and click-through rates vary by industry. For instance, bank and credit card emails have open rates of ~48% and click-through rates of 3.8%, while retail apparel emails have open rates of ~28% and click-through rates of 2.3%.

How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day
Epsilon Q4 Industry Benchmark Email Open Rates

The best time of day varies (of course), but you’ll generally do well in 4-hour intervals. 6am, 10am, 2pm, and after 8pm get the best results.

One interpretation would say these are the times when people are looking for something to distract them. When they wake up, after they’ve worked for 2-3 hours, when the afternoon crash strikes, and when relaxing in the evenings.

10am holds the #1 spot, but again, all of this depends on your audience. If you’re a cocktail brand targeting party-goers, 6am probably isn’t a good time to send emails. But if you’re an enterprise software targeting business VPs, 6am could be your oasis!

Best Time to Send How Many Emails Every Day

What’s the Best Length for an Email?

You’ve only got 10-15 seconds to grab and keep someone’s attention, so the quick answer is: short. (Tweet this!)

Based on an average reading speed of 200 words per minute, that gives you 30-50 words with which to captivate your readers. But that’s not the whole picture.

Related: 7 Foundational Small Business Marketing Tips to Drive Exponential Growth

The highest read rates reportedly come from emails with subject lines of 61-70 characters, which might account for emails containing articles and other content with long titles. Interestingly, subject lines with 2 words or less get higher open rates.

How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day 2

Subject lines featuring the word “quick” are opened at a 17% lower rate than those without. Since people tend to view email on mobile devices, and since those devices can only display 4-7 words in a line, the subject line “Question” could be a good fit for many intro emails. (It’s certainly a popular choice.) So could your name, your company’s name, or the name of your recipient.

Surprisingly, emails with no subjects at all are reportedly opened at an 8% higher rate than those with subject lines. Apparently it makes people curious.

Those with “Alert” in the subject line were opened at an almost 62% higher rate! Though, you can only use that trick sparingly, lest you become the brand who cried wolf.

Bringing It All Together

Email can be great, but too many people get too many emails. Think of the emails you send like tweets. Short, punchy, and images can always help.

Remember that mobile is key. Most importantly, you have to test everything you do! If you don’t test between options and characteristics, you’ll never know what your best campaigns could be, or what you’re missing out on!

Related: 7 Simple Steps to Quickly Convert More Online Leads

73 Texting Statistics That Answer All Your Questions

Texting Statistics Answer Questions

Mobile everything has been one of the fastest growing trends this decade. People are on their phones for a slough of reasons at all hours of the day and night. We’ve got elaborations on mobile trends and usage all over our site, and below are all the texting statistics you could ever want! Enjoy.

Worldwide Texting Statistics

1. The number of monthly texts sent increased more than 7,700% over the last decade. (Statistic Brain) (Tweet this!)

2. Over 560 billion texts are sent every month worldwide. (Statistic Brain) (Tweet this!)

3. 18.7 billion texts are sent worldwide every day, not including app-to-app messaging. (Statistic Brain) (Tweet this!)

4. (2017 Update) 15,220,700 texts are sent every minute of every day worldwide, not including app-to-app messaging. (Domo) (Tweet this!)

5. (2017 Update) 913,242,000 texts are sent every hour of every day worldwide, not including app-to-app messaging. (Domo) (Tweet this!)

6. (2017 Update) 22 billion texts are sent every day worldwide, not including app-to-app messaging. (Domo) (Tweet this!)

7. (2017 Update) 8 trillion texts are sent worldwide every year, not including app-to-app messaging. (Domo) (Tweet this!)

8. WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger combine for more than 60 billion messages sent every day. (The Verge) (Tweet this!)

9. 4.2 billion+ people text worldwide. (MBA Online) (Tweet this!)

10. Text messaging is the most used data service in the world. (Nielsen) (Tweet this!)

Daily Monthly Texting Statistics

U.S. Texting Statistics

11. 81% of Americans text regularly. (Pew Research Center) (Tweet this!)

12. Over 6 billion texts are sent every day. (CTIA) (Tweet this!)

13. Over 180 billion texts are sent every month. (CTIA) (Tweet this!)

14. 2.27 trillion texts are sent every year. (CTIA) (Tweet this!)

15. 97% of American adults text weekly. (Pew Research Center) (Tweet this!)

16. America is responsible for approximately 45% of the world’s text volume. (CTIA & Statistic Brain) (Tweet this!)

17. Americans text twice as much as they call, on average. (Nielsen) (Tweet this!)

18. In 2010, almost 200,00 texts were sent every second of the year. (MBA Online) (Tweet this!)

Related: 101 Reasons You Might Text Someone Today

Texting Statistics by Age

19. 91% of teens with cell phones actively text. (Pew Research Center) (Tweet this!)

20. About 50% of adults 18-24 say text conversations as just as meaningful as a phone call. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

21. Adults under 45 send and receive 85+ texts every day, on average. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

22. (2017 Update) The average consumer sends 3 messages per hour (including app-to-app messaging). (Twilio) (Tweet this!)

23. (2017 Update) The average consumer sends 72 messages per day (including app-to-app messaging). (Twilio) (Tweet this!)

24. 77% of students want relevant information from colleges via text. (Cappex) (Tweet this!)

25. 59% of students say a college can text them first. (Cappex) (Tweet this!)

26. Adults 18-24 y.o. send and receive over 128 texts every day. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

27. Adults 18-24 y.o. send and receive 3,853 texts a month. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

28. Adults 25-34 send and receive over 75 texts a day. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

29. Adults 25-34 send and receive 2,240 texts a month. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

30. Adults 35-44 send and receive about 52 texts a day. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

31. Adults 35-44 send and receive 1,557 texts a month. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

32. Adults 45-54 send and receive 33 texts a day. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

33. Adults 45-54 send and receive 998 texts a month. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

34. Adults 55+ send and receive 16 texts a day. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

35. Adults 55+ send and receive 491 texts a month. (Experian Marketing Services) (Tweet this!)

Related: How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day?

Texting Statistics by Age

Texting Statistics by Time and Rates

36. Texting is 10X quicker than phone calls. (Text Request) (Tweet this!)

37. Texts have a 99% open rate. (SinglePoint) (Tweet this!)

38. 95% of texts will be read within 3 minutes of being sent. (Forbes) (Tweet this!)

39. Average response time for a text is 90 seconds. (CTIA) (Tweet this!)

40. Texts have a 45% average response rate. (Velocify) (Tweet this!)

41. College students spend 94 minutes a day texting, on average. (Journal of Behavioral Addictions) (Tweet this!)

42. Texting takes up 33% of Millennials’ mobile usage. (RealityMine) (Tweet this!)

43. Text messages are read in under 5 seconds, on average. (SlickText) (Tweet this!)

44. 96% of smartphone owners text. (Pew Research Center) (Tweet this!)

45. The average adult spends 23 hours a week texting. (USA Today) (Tweet this!)

Related: Why Has Live Texting Become So Popular?

Texting Statistics by Preference

46. 33% of American adults prefer texts to all other forms of communication. (Pew Research Center) (Tweet this!)

47. Text is the most used form of communication for American adults under 50. (Gallup) (Tweet this!)

48. 91% of people who text prefer it over voicemail. (RingCentral) (Tweet this!)

49. Texting is the most common cell phone activity. (Pew Research Center) (Tweet this!)

50. A third of Americans prefer text to phone calls. (Pew Research Center) (Tweet this!)

Business Texting Statistics

51. Only 48% of businesses are currently equipped to handle any form of messaging. (Twilio) (Tweet this!)

52. 78% of people wish they could have a text conversation with a business. (RingCentral) (Tweet this!)

53. (2017 Update) 89% of consumers want to use messaging to communicate with businesses. (Twilio) (Tweet this!)

54. Messaging is the #1 preferred customer support channel in the U.S. (Twilio) (Tweet this!)

55. 79% of bosses are supportive of texting for business purposes. (RingCentral) (Tweet this!)

Related: 8 Benefits of Texting for Business That You Desperately Need

56. 61% of businesses wish they could send and receive texts from a business number. (RingCentral) (Tweet this!)

57. 61% of contact centers have or plan to offer SMS support by the end of 2016. (Dimension Data) (Tweet this!)

58. 80% of professionals currently use text for business purposes. (RingCentral) (Tweet this!)

59. People prefer text most for scheduling or changing appointments, and making or confirming reservations. (Harris) (Tweet this!)

60. Over half of customers would rather text a customer support agent instead of using other available options. (eWeek)  (Tweet this!)

61. Texting is highest rated contact method for customer satisfaction compared to all other communication channels (Text – 90; Phone – 77; Facebook – 66). (eWeek) (Tweet this!)

62. Over 1/3 of professionals say they can’t go 10 minutes without responding to a text. (eWeek) (Tweet this!)

63. Calls cost customer service centers several dollars per conversation. Texts cost pennies per conversation. (Forrester & ContactBabel) (Tweet this!)

64. 44% of consumers prefer to press a button and initiate a text conversation, rather than wait on hold with an agent. (Harris) (Tweet this!)

65. 75% of people like offers sent via text (but no more than 2/mo). (Digital Marketing Magazine) (Tweet this!)

66. Texting in the sales process with a qualified lead can increase conversions over 100%. (Velocify) (Tweet this!)

67. 72% of business professionals prefer texting to messaging apps. (eWeek) (Tweet this!)

68. Nearly 70% of employees think text should be used for interoffice communication. (Vitiello Communications Group) (Tweet this!)

69. 64% of consumers are likely to have a positive perception of companies that offer communication via text. (Harris) (Tweet this!)

70. 90% of leads prefer to be texted, compared to called. (FranchiseHelp) (Tweet this!)

Related: 7 Simple Steps to Quickly Convert More Online Leads

71. Response rates from text are 209% higher than those from phone calls. (FranchiseHelp) (Tweet this!)

72. Verification rates (positive or “yes” responses) are 295% higher through text, compared to phone calls. (FranchiseHelp) (Tweet this!)

73. Text verification rates are consistently around 200% higher than email verification. (Nexmo) (Tweet this!)

Don’t see something you want? Let us know what texting statistics you’re looking for, and we’ll discover them for you!

How Many Texts Do People Send Every Day?

How Many Texts People Send

If you just want to know the number of texts people send every day, scroll down. Your numbers are highlighted in red. There’s charts, too! If you want details and explanations, keep reading.

Everyone wants to know how many texts are sent and received every day, and who’s doing all this messaging. The trouble is that this specific research is only conducted every several years. Trends suggest the numbers keep rising, but that’s difficult to confirm in between reports.

How many texts do people send every day? It’s not the easiest question to answer, but here’s everything we know.

Note that app-to-app messaging, such as WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger, is not included in this. (Those two combine for over 60 billion messages every day, in case you were curious.)

Global vs. U.S.

In June of 2014, 561 billion text messages were sent worldwide. That’s the most recent number we’ve got. Obviously that’s a rounded figure, but it brings us to roughly 18.7 billion texts sent every day around the world. (Tweet this!)

By the end of 2011, the United States was sending out 6 billion texts every day, or about 180 billion a month. At that same time – end of year 2011 – there were about 395 billion monthly texts being sent worldwide.

In other words, the U.S. was responsible for about 45% of the world’s texts. Not bad for 4% of the world’s population.

Between the end of 2011 and June 2014, global text usage grew from ~395 billion to 561 billion messages per month. That’s a growth of approximately 140%.

Related: 73 Texting Statistics That Answer All Your Questions

If – strong if – U.S. text usage grew by that same figure, then Americans sent 255 billion texts in June of 2014.

With very rough figures, we’ll extrapolate that the most recent data we have shows 8.5 billion texts sent every day in these here United States of America.

How Many Texts Do People Send Every Day

We do know that 81% of the American population are texters – they text at least on a monthly basis. For round figures, the U.S. has a population of 320 million. 81% of our population equals roughly 259 million people who text.

So. If 259 million people are sending out 8.5 billion texts a day, what does that account to? That’s roughly 32-33 messages per day, per person.

From here, we can keep breaking down the numbers by who owns what device and how old they are, but what’s the point? People under 18 aren’t included in a lot of the data, and those over 65 years old hardly do any texting. But we’ll get to that.

This is arguably the best data available, but we can’t say with complete assurance that it’s 100% accurate for today. Take it with a grain of salt.

By Age Group

The best research we have here is from Pew Research Center in 2011. They conducted another very thorough study towards the end of 2014 (released in April, 2015), but for some reason the new one didn’t include the number of text messages sent.

They did, however, show that text/SMS is the single most used feature on a smartphone, with 97% of all smartphone users having texted within the last week.

Related: 101 Reasons You Might Text Someone Today

Coming in second was audio/video calls with a 92% usage rate, and the internet with an 89% usage rate. Think about that.

On mobile devices (which take up the majority of web traffic), people text more than they use the internet. That’s incredible.

Thankfully, in 2013, Experian Marketing Services released this report, breaking down text usage by demographic. Again, it’s been a few years since their report, which might mean the numbers are dated, but it’s the best public information we’ve got.

Per their report, those between 18-24 years old sent and received an average of 3,853 texts messages per month. In a 30-day month, that’s just over 128 messages per day.

As of 2013, American adults between 18-24 sent and received an average of just over 128 text messages per day.

How Many Texts Do People Send Every Day

The next group is adults 25-34 years old, which, admittedly, is a large age group to include. There’s 3 completely different life stages in this, which leads us to believe that the numbers would be skewed between those 25-29 and those 30-34. But I digress.

People in this age range averaged 2,240 sent and received texts per month. Based on a 30-day month, that’s just under 75 messages per day.

Related: How Many Emails Do People Get Every Day?

As of 2013, American adults between 25-34 sent and received an average of just under 75 text messages per day.

Those 35-44 years old sent and received an average of 1,557 text messages per month, which comes out to 52 text messages per day.

Adults 45-54 years old sent and received 998 text messages per month, or about 33 messages a day.

The 55+ group averaged 491 messages per month, translating into 16 text messages per day.

Let’s group some of these together for more a “comprehensive” and easy to remember figure (or just a fun fact to toss around). If we generalize these age groups American adults under 45 years old send and receive an average of 2,550 messages a month, or about 85 text messages per day. (Tweet this!)

Related: 8 Benefits of Texting for Business That You Desperately Need

How Much Time Do People Spend on Media Everyday?

How Much Time People Spend on Media

Depending on which study you look at over the last few years, the average person spends roughly 810 hours engaged in media everyday. Impressive, huh? But is it really all that surprising? “Media” refers to TV, Netflix, radio, movies, podcasts, YouTube, and just about any app on your phone. When you realize how broad of a category “media” is, spending 10 hours a day on it really isn’t all that much. Think about it.

When you wake up in the morning, you check your notifications, emails, etc. You might read a book. Perhaps you turn on the TV for a morning show. You probably read a few articles or watch a few videos you see shared on Facebook, Medium, LinkedIn, Twitter, or whatever your go-to source is. You listen to radio or podcasts on your way to work (somebody’s got to support Mike & Mike). You might even stream some of this stuff while you’re at the office!

At some point you’ll get distracted on Facebook or LinkedIn. Heck, your job might be to be engaged in media all day! You listen to the radio or something on the way home from work. Maybe you watch an hour or two of some show, and recoup by scrolling through your mobile device. When you think about it, 10 hours a day seems a bit low.

Media is a staple of how we get through our days, stay informed, find entertainment, and keep up with contacts. Media is not evil, we’re not all being brainwashed. It’s simply a (rather large) facet of life, culture, and progress.

Someone is inevitably going to look at this – at the fact that we spend up to 10 hours a day (maybe more) invested in media – as outrageous, deplorable, even as a sure sign that the end is near! Think whatever you want, that’s not the case. Think about all the gaps that would be created in your day and in your life if you took out media. You could get by and be perfectly content, I’m sure. But what you would miss out on – news, relationships, opportunities, fulfillment, progress, self-actualization – would far outweigh any benefit you would gain from disconnecting.

Technology is the driving force behind our media consumption. Technology progressively makes the things we want to do easier to do. At the heart of that innovation is the desire to build, to grow, to improve, and to develop. Sure, anything can be used to harmful effects. But 10 hours a day of media is not killing anybody. When used properly, media enables us to better ourselves and that which surrounds us. Don’t look at this research in shock at what we do. Look at it as part of how we grow in ourselves, in business, and with others.

Crucial New Study Brings Light to Franchise Texting

Crucial New Study Brings Light to Franchise Texting

If you're not familiar with us, we work with about two dozen national franchises to help them achieve their goals in this mobile-first era. Given what we do and who we work with, you can imagine our delight after seeing FranchiseHelp's latest study on franchise texting. Even by our standards, the results are rather incredible! Let's dive in.

Keep this in mind. The reason FranchiseHelp conducted this research was because their most popular article in 2015 was on consumers' preference for text messaging over phone calls. Franchise owners are clearly interested in what texting can do for them, and searching for answers.

Here's what they did. FranchiseHelp verifies all of their leads to ensure they're worth spending time on. When someone made the conversion to become a lead, they gave FranchiseHelp their phone number. It's fascinating. Over 80% of the time, leads were giving their personal cell phone numbers instead of landlines or business numbers anyway!

Then FranchiseHelp started asking leads whether they'd prefer to be reached by call or by text. Month over month, about 90% said they'd rather be texted. Only 10% preferred to communicate via phone call.

The most important finding throughout this process is not that people prefer texting. Everyone implicitly knows people prefer texts over phone calls, even if you've never articulated it before. No, the most important finding here is how much more effective (and cheaper) each and every text message was when compared to phone calls.

Everyone in this study was already a lead. They were interested. They'd already willfully given out their information. FranchiseHelp reached out to verify whether a person was a hot lead worthy of the company's time. Any answer ("yes" or "no") counted as a response. And a "yes" response counted as a verification. Here's what happened.

With text messaging, FranchiseHelp received a response rate 209% higher than their response rate from phone calls. Even better, responses through text had a 295% higher verification rate than phone calls. That's amazing!

What this shows is that texting does two things. Texting leads creates for superior engagement rates, when compared to phone calls. And engagement through text is far more likely to result in a conversion, when compared to phone calls. It brings together the full picture of franchise texting, and how it's inexcusable for businesses not to be texting.

FranchiseHelp goes on to say that they're unsure of why these rates are so in favor of texting over phone calls. To that, we believe we can add some value. In fact, our top piece of 2015 was on that very topic! You can click here to read 10 Reasons Millennials Aren't Answering Your Phone Calls.

Phone calls are disruptive. They're distracting. People are constantly searching for better ways to do anything, and they've found texting to be a better means of communication. Franchise texting in particular allows you to harness this preference to boost every aspect of your operations, from making sales to customer service.

Texting is what consumers prefer. Specifically, it's what your franchise absolutely needs to be doing.

Is Our Mobile Dependence Actually A Bad Thing? Here’s the Research

Is Our Mobile Dependence Actually a Bad Thing?

It doesn’t take much to notice that cell phones are everywhere, and used for everything. But is our mobile dependence actually a bad thing?

Everything I need to make it through my day – from boarding passes to spreadsheets, entertainment to communication – fits in my pocket. What’s more useful than that?

Smart phones have become a staple, because they place the best technology in the palms of our hands 24/7.

Recent Research on Mobile Dependence

Earlier this year, Pew Research Center released its latest findings on smartphone usage in the U.S. Not surprisingly, we use our phones a lot more now than when they conducted their last study in 2011.

95% of of U.S. adults own a cell phone, and that 77% own a smartphone specifically.

Related: How Much Time Do People Spend on Their Mobile Phones in 2017?

With the need to continually find better ways to do more, our mobile dependence makes perfect sense. Phones are able to replace and improve a lot of tasks at home and the office.

Pew also found that 67% of adult cell phone owners check their devices without first getting a notification. Some call this a compulsive disorder, but research suggests that true mobile dependence isn’t even an issue for most Americans.

Pew Research Center Mobile Dependence Chart by Income
PC: Pew Research Center

While some look at our heavy mobile usage as dependence, addiction, or an annoying fad, the research more closely describes a cultural shift. And checking your phone is more a subtle tick, like scratching your nose or biting your lip.

Related: Here’s How Often the Average American Checks Their Phone Every Day

For instance, 97% of American adult smart phone owners text regularly. Why? Because texting is often more convenient.

About 90% of all smartphone owners also use the device for internet access, and for checking email. Why? Because it’s a better experience than going to your computer every time you have a question or need to send a message.

We can call this mobile dependence, or an acclimation to new technology, or anything else. But is it a good thing, or is it a bad thing?

A Quick Example

I had the privilege of attending 2015’s Masters Par 3 Tournament at Augusta National, where cell phones aren’t allowed. Throughout the day, our group of six made several comments about how odd it was not to have our phones on us.

Every time we had a question, we recited the day’s anthem:

“Just Google it…

“Oh wait.”

But mobile devices aren’t just used for quickly answering questions. They’ve become critical to the routines of professionals everywhere and to driving business growth.

Mobile Dependence Isn’t An American Issue

Interestingly, cell phones have become a staple throughout the world. In fact, 48 million people in developing countries have a cell phone, but don’t even have running electricity!

Hellhound Bloggers Worldwide Cell Phone Ownership
PC: Hellhound Bloggers

1.7 billion people have cell phones, but no bank account! And with 4.2 billion people in the world who use their phones to text, texting is easily the most used data service in the world.

This hasn’t happened because of one American addiction. Actually, less developed countries are more mobile dependent than we are, because so many other technologies aren’t available. 

All of this has happened because mobile phone technology – just like the automobile and indoor plumbing – makes life easier.

So, Is Our Mobile Dependence Actually a Bad Thing?

Cell phones provide more accessibility to more people looking for answers to questions, or who want to further their social lives, grow their businesses, or experience more of what the world has to offer.

Our mobile dependence isn’t a bad thing.

We should be excited to live through the new opportunities this technology provides for billions! More people can access the internet, communicate where they couldn’t before, and collaborate from anywhere.

That’s amazing!

Related: How Many People Still Use a Landline Phone in 2017? New Research Finds